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詳解Java解析XML的四種方法

←手機掃碼閱讀     火星人 @ 2014-03-09 , reply:0
XML現在已經成為一種通用的數據交換格式,它的平台無關性,語言無關性,系統無關性,給數據集成與交互帶來了極大的方便.對於XML本身的語法知識與技術細節,需要閱讀相關的技術文獻,這裡面包括的內容有DOM(Document Object Model),DTD(Document Type Definition),SAX(Simple API for XML),XSD(Xml Schema Definition),XSLT(Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations),具體可參閱w3c官方網站文檔http://www.w3.org獲取更多信息.
XML在不同的語言里解析方式都是一樣的,只不過實現的語法不同而已.基本的解析方式有兩種,一種叫SAX,另一種叫DOM.SAX是基於事件流的解析,DOM是基於XML文檔樹結構的解析.假設我們XML的內容和結構如下:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<employees>
<employee>
<name>ddviplinux</name>
<sex>m</sex> <age>30</age>
</employee>
</employees>
本文使用JAVA語言來實現DOM與SAX的XML文檔生成與解析.
首先定義一個操作XML文檔的介面XmlDocument 它定義了XML文檔的建立與解析的介面.
package com.alisoft.facepay.framework.bean;
/**
*
*
@author hongliang.dinghl * 定義XML文檔建立與解析的介面
*/ public interface XmlDocument {
/**
* 建立XML文檔
* @param fileName 文件全路徑名稱
*/ public void createXml(String fileName);
/**
* 解析XML文檔
* @param fileName 文件全路徑名稱
*/ public void parserXml(String fileName);
}
1.DOM生成和解析XML文檔
為 XML 文檔的已解析版本定義了一組介面.解析器讀入整個文檔,然後構建一個駐留內存的樹結構,然後代碼就可以使用 DOM 介面來操作這個樹結構.優點:整個文檔樹在內存中,便於操作;支持刪除、修改、重新排列等多種功能;缺點:將整個文檔調入內存(包括無用的節點),浪費時間和空間;使用場合:一旦解析了文檔還需多次訪問這些數據;硬體資源充足(內存、CPU).
package com.alisoft.facepay.framework.bean; import java.io.FileInputStream; import java.io.FileNotFoundException; import java.io.FileOutputStream; import java.io.IOException; import java.io.InputStream; import java.io.PrintWriter; import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilder; import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory; import javax.xml.parsers.ParserConfigurationException; import javax.xml.transform.OutputKeys; import javax.xml.transform.Transformer; import javax.xml.transform.TransformerConfigurationException; import javax.xml.transform.TransformerException; import javax.xml.transform.TransformerFactory; import javax.xml.transform.dom.DOMSource; import javax.xml.transform.stream.StreamResult; import org.w3c.dom.Document; import org.w3c.dom.Element; import org.w3c.dom.Node; import org.w3c.dom.NodeList; import org.xml.sax.SAXException; /** * * @author hongliang.dinghl * DOM生成與解析XML文檔 */ public class DomDemo implements XmlDocument { private Document document; private String fileName; public void init() { try { DocumentBuilderFactory factory = DocumentBuilderFactory .newInstance(); DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder(); this.document = builder.newDocument(); } catch (ParserConfigurationException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } } public void createXml(String fileName) { Element root = this.document.createElement("employees"); this.document.appendChild(root); Element employee = this.document.createElement("employee"); Element name = this.document.createElement("name"); name.appendChild(this.document.createTextNode("丁宏亮")); employee.appendChild(name); Element sex = this.document.createElement("sex"); sex.appendChild(this.document.createTextNode("m")); employee.appendChild(sex); Element age = this.document.createElement("age"); age.appendChild(this.document.createTextNode("30")); employee.appendChild(age); root.appendChild(employee); TransformerFactory tf = TransformerFactory.newInstance(); try { Transformer transformer = tf.newTransformer(); DOMSource source = new DOMSource(document); transformer.setOutputProperty(OutputKeys.ENCODING, "gb2312"); transformer.setOutputProperty(OutputKeys.INDENT, "yes"); PrintWriter pw = new PrintWriter(new FileOutputStream(fileName)); StreamResult result = new StreamResult(pw); transformer.transform(source, result); System.out.println("生成XML文件成功!"); } catch (TransformerConfigurationException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } catch (IllegalArgumentException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } catch (FileNotFoundException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } catch (TransformerException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } } public void parserXml(String fileName) { try { DocumentBuilderFactory dbf = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance(); DocumentBuilder db = dbf.newDocumentBuilder(); Document document = db.parse(fileName); NodeList employees = document.getChildNodes(); for (int i = 0; i < employees.getLength(); i ) { Node employee = employees.item(i); NodeList employeeInfo = employee.getChildNodes(); for (int j = 0; j < employeeInfo.getLength(); j ) { Node node = employeeInfo.item(j); NodeList employeeMeta = node.getChildNodes(); for (int k = 0; k < employeeMeta.getLength(); k ) { System.out.println(employeeMeta.item(k).getNodeName() ":" employeeMeta.item(k).getTextContent()); } } } System.out.println("解析完畢"); } catch (FileNotFoundException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } catch (ParserConfigurationException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } catch (SAXException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } catch (IOException e) { System.out.println(e.getMessage()); } } }


2.SAX生成和解析XML文檔
為解決DOM的問題,出現了SAX.SAX ,事件驅動.當解析器發現元素開始、元素結束、文本、文檔的開始或結束等時,發送事件,程序員編寫響應這些事件的代碼,保存數據.優點:不用事先調入整個文檔,佔用資源少;SAX解析器代碼比DOM解析器代碼小,適於Applet,下載.缺點:不是持久的;事件過後,若沒保存數據,那麼數據就丟了;無狀態性;從事件中只能得到文本,但不知該文本屬於哪個元素;使用場合:Applet;只需XML文檔的少量內容,很少回頭訪問;機器內存少;
Java代碼
package com.alisoft.facepay.framework.bean;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import javax.xml.parsers.ParserConfigurationException;
import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParser;
import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory;
import org.xml.sax.Attributes;
import org.xml.sax.SAXException;
import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler;
/** *
* @author hongliang.dinghl * SAX文檔解析 */ public class SaxDemo implements XmlDocument {
public void createXml(String fileName) {
System.out.println("<<" filename ">>");
}
public void parserXml(String fileName) {
SAXParserFactory saxfac = SAXParserFactory.newInstance();
try {
SAXParser saxparser = saxfac.newSAXParser();
InputStream is = new FileInputStream(fileName);
saxparser.parse(is, new MySAXHandler());
} catch (ParserConfigurationException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
} catch (SAXException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}
class MySAXHandler extends DefaultHandler {
boolean hasAttribute = false;
Attributes attributes = null;
public void startDocument() throws SAXException {
System.out.println("文檔開始列印了");
}
public void endDocument() throws SAXException {
System.out.println("文檔列印結束了");
}
public void startElement(String uri, String localName, String qName,
Attributes attributes) throws SAXException {
if (qName.equals("employees")) {
return;
}
if (qName.equals("employee")) {
System.out.println(qName);
}
if (attributes.getLength() > 0) {
this.attributes = attributes;
this.hasAttribute = true;
}
}
public void endElement(String uri, String localName, String qName)


throws SAXException {
if (hasAttribute && (attributes != null)) {
for (int i = 0; i < attributes.getLength(); i ) {
System.out.println(attributes.getQName(0)
attributes.getValue(0));
}
}
}
public void characters(char[] ch, int start, int length)
throws SAXException {
System.out.println(new String(ch, start, length));
}
} package com.alisoft.facepay.framework.bean; import java.io.FileInputStream; import java.io.FileNotFoundException; import java.io.IOException; import java.io.InputStream; import javax.xml.parsers.ParserConfigurationException; import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParser; import javax.xml.parsers.SAXParserFactory; import org.xml.sax.Attributes; import org.xml.sax.SAXException; import org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler; /** * * @author hongliang.dinghl * SAX文檔解析 */ public class SaxDemo implements XmlDocument { public void createXml(String fileName) { System.out.println("<<" filename ">>"); } public void parserXml(String fileName) { SAXParserFactory saxfac = SAXParserFactory.newInstance(); try { SAXParser saxparser = saxfac.newSAXParser(); InputStream is = new FileInputStream(fileName); saxparser.parse(is, new MySAXHandler()); } catch (ParserConfigurationException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } catch (SAXException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } catch (FileNotFoundException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } } class MySAXHandler extends DefaultHandler { boolean hasAttribute = false; Attributes attributes = null; public void startDocument() throws SAXException { System.out.println("文檔開始列印了"); } public void endDocument() throws SAXException { System.out.println("文檔列印結束了"); } public void startElement(String uri, String localName, String qName, Attributes attributes) throws SAXException { if (qName.equals("employees")) { return; } if (qName.equals("employee")) { System.out.println(qName); } if (attributes.getLength() > 0) { this.attributes = attributes; this.hasAttribute = true; } } public void endElement(String uri, String localName, String qName) throws SAXException { if (hasAttribute && (attributes != null)) { for (int i = 0; i < attributes.getLength(); i ) { System.out.println(attributes.getQName(0) attributes.getValue(0)); } } } public void characters(char[] ch, int start, int length) throws SAXException { System.out.println(new String(ch, start, length)); } }
3.DOM4J生成和解析XML文檔
DOM4J 是一個非常非常優秀的Java XML API,具有性能優異、功能強大和極端易用使用的特點,同時它也是一個開放源代碼的軟體.如今你可以看到越來越多的 Java 軟體都在使用 DOM4J 來讀寫 XML,特別值得一提的是連 Sun 的 JAXM 也在用 DOM4J.


Java代碼
package com.alisoft.facepay.framework.bean;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileWriter;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.Writer;
import java.util.Iterator;
import org.dom4j.Document;
import org.dom4j.DocumentException;
import org.dom4j.DocumentHelper;
import org.dom4j.Element;
import org.dom4j.io.SAXReader;
import org.dom4j.io.XMLWriter;
/** *
* @author hongliang.dinghl * Dom4j 生成XML文檔與解析XML文檔 */
public class Dom4jDemo implements XmlDocument {
public void createXml(String fileName) {
Document document = DocumentHelper.createDocument();
Element employees=document.addElement("employees");
Element employee=employees.addElement("employee");
Element name= employee.addElement("name");
name.setText("ddvip");
Element sex=employee.addElement("sex");
sex.setText("m");
Element age=employee.addElement("age");
age.setText("29");
try {
Writer fileWriter=new FileWriter(fileName);
XMLWriter xmlWriter=new XMLWriter(fileWriter);
xmlWriter.write(document);
xmlWriter.close();
} catch (IOException e) {
System.out.println(e.getMessage());
}
}
public void parserXml(String fileName) {
File inputXml=new File(fileName);
SAXReader saxReader = new SAXReader();
try {
Document document = saxReader.read(inputXml);
Element employees=document.getRootElement();
for(Iterator i = employees.elementIterator(); i.hasNext();){
Element employee = (Element) i.next();
for(Iterator j = employee.elementIterator(); j.hasNext();){
Element node=(Element) j.next();
System.out.println(node.getName() ":" node.getText());
}
}
} catch (DocumentException e) {
System.out.println(e.getMessage());
}
System.out.println("dom4j parserXml");
}
}
4.JDOM生成和解析XML
為減少DOM、SAX的編碼量,出現了JDOM;優點:20-80原則,極大減少了代碼量.使用場合:要實現的功能簡單,如解析、創建等,但在底層,JDOM還是使用SAX(最常用)、DOM、Xanan文檔.
package com.alisoft.facepay.framework.bean;
import java.io.FileNotFoundException;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.List;
import org.jdom.Document;
import org.jdom.Element;
import org.jdom.JDOMException;
import org.jdom.input.SAXBuilder;
import org.jdom.output.XMLOutputter;
/** *


* @author hongliang.dinghl * JDOM 生成與解析XML文檔 *
*/ public class JDomDemo implements XmlDocument {
public void createXml(String fileName) {
Document document;
Element root;
root=new Element("employees");
document=new Document(root);
Element employee=new Element("employee");
root.addContent(employee);
Element name=new Element("name");
name.setText("ddvip");
employee.addContent(name);
Element sex=new Element("sex");
sex.setText("m");
employee.addContent(sex);
Element age=new Element("age");
age.setText("23");
employee.addContent(age);
XMLOutputter XMLOut = new XMLOutputter();
try {
XMLOut.output(document, new FileOutputStream(fileName));
} catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
public void parserXml(String fileName) {
SAXBuilder builder=new SAXBuilder(false);
try {
Document document=builder.build(fileName);
Element employees=document.getRootElement();
List employeeList=employees.getChildren("employee");
for(int i=0;iElement employee=(Element)employeeList.get(i);
List employeeInfo=employee.getChildren();
for(int j=0;jSystem.out.println(((Element)employeeInfo.get(j)).
getName() ":" ((Element)employeeInfo.get(j)).getValue());
}
}
} catch (JDOMException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}
tter();
try {
XMLOut.output(document, new FileOutputStream(fileName));
}
catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
e.printStackTrace(); }
catch (IOException e)
{
e.printStackTrace(); }
}
public void parserXml(String fileName) {
SAXBuilder builder=new SAXBuilder(false);
try {
Document document=builder.build(fileName);
Element employees=document.getRootElement();
List employeeList=employees.getChildren("employee");
for(int i=0;iElement employee=(Element)employeeList.get(i);
List employeeInfo=employee.getChildren();
for(int j=0;jSystem.out.println(((Element)employeeInfo.get(j)).getName() ":" ((Element)employeeInfo.get(j)).getValue());
}
}
} catch (JDOMException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}


}


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